Protesters opposing compulsory health measures against the coronavirus pandemic in Belgium were dispersed by police water cannons.
Some 8,000 people marched through Brussels towards the headquarters of the European Union, chanting “Freedom!” and letting off fireworks.
The crowd was smaller than the 35,000 vaccine and lockdown sceptics who marched last month.
Protesters were blocked from reaching the roundabout outside the EU headquarters by a barbed-wire barricade and a line of riot officers.
As two drones and a helicopter circled overhead, they threw fireworks and beer cans. Police responded with water cannon and tear gas.
As the crowd dispersed into smaller groups around the European quarter, there were more clashes and some set fire to barricades of rubbish.
Belgian Prime Minister Alexander de Croo on Friday announced a series of measures to tighten sanitary rules, bringing school Christmas holidays forward and asking children aged six and over to wear masks.
Belgium, with a population of 11 million, has recorded an average of more than 17,800 daily infections with COVID-19 during the past seven days, as well as 44 deaths.
Approximately 800 people with severe forms of the disease are in intensive care in hospitals across the country, leading to overcrowding and the postponement of treatment for many other conditions.
Several European countries have seen demonstrations in recent weeks as governments respond to a surge in Covid-19 cases with tighter restrictions.